Slow-Theta-to-Gamma Phase-Amplitude Coupling in Human Hippocampus Supports the Formation of New Episodic Memories

Bradley Lega, John Burke, Joshua Jacobs, Michael J. Kahana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

114 Scopus citations


Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been proposed as a neural mechanism for coordinating information processing across brain regions. Here we sought to characterize PAC in the human hippocampus, and in temporal and frontal cortices, during the formation of new episodic memories. Intracranial recordings taken as 56 neurosurgical patients studied and recalled lists of words revealed significant hippocampal PAC, with slow-theta activity (2.5-5 Hz) modulating gamma band activity (34-130 Hz). Furthermore, a significant number of hippocampal electrodes exhibited greater PAC during successful than unsuccessful encoding, with the gamma activity at these sites coupled to the trough of the slow-theta oscillation. These same conditions facilitate LTP in animal models, providing a possible mechanism of action for this effect in human memory. Uniquely in the hippocampus, phase preference during item encoding exhibited a biphasic pattern. Overall, our findings help translate between the patterns identified during basic memory tasks in animals and those present during complex human memory encoding. We discuss the unique properties of human hippocampal PAC and how our findings relate to influential theories of information processing based on theta-gamma interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-278
Number of pages11
JournalCerebral Cortex
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • episodic memory
  • hippocampus
  • phase-amplitude coupling
  • theta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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