Abstract: The harmful effects of mechanical ventilation (MV) on the preterm lung are well established. Avoiding MV at birth and stabilization on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) decreases the composite outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Although preterm infants are increasingly being admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit on CPAP, centers differ in the ability to manage infants primarily on CPAP. Over the last decade, less invasive surfactant administration (LISA), a method of administering surfactant with a thin catheter, has been devised and has been shown to decrease the need for MV and improve outcomes compared to surfactant administration via an endotracheal tube following intubation. While LISA has been widely adopted in Europe and other countries, its use is not widespread in the United States. This article provides a summary of the existing evidence on LISA, and practical guidance for US units choosing to implement a change of practice incorporating optimization of CPAP and LISA. Impact: The accumulated body of evidence for less invasive surfactant administration (LISA), a widespread practice in other countries, justifies its use as an alternative to intubation and surfactant administration in US neonatal units.This article summarizes the current evidence for LISA, identifies gaps in knowledge, and offers practical tips for the implementation of LISA as part of a comprehensive non-invasive respiratory support strategy.This article will help neonatal units in the US develop guidelines for LISA, provide optimal respiratory support for infants with respiratory distress syndrome, improve short- and long-term outcomes of preterm infants, and potentially decrease costs of NICU care.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health