Semi-interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of ketorolac tromethamine

Ajit P. Rokhade, Sunil A. Agnihotri, Sangamesh A. Patil, Nadagouda N. Mallikarjuna, Padmakar V. Kulkarni, Tejraj M. Aminabhavi

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321 Scopus citations


Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microspheres of natural polymers, viz., gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were prepared by using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT), an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, was successfully encapsulated into IPN microspheres. Various formulations were prepared by varying the ratio of gelatin and NaCMC, % drug loading, and amount of GA. Microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to understand the formation of IPN structure and to confirm the absence of chemical interactions between drug, polymer, and crosslinking agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphology of the microspheres. SEM showed that particles have slightly rough surfaces. Particle size as measured by using laser light scattering technique gave an average size ranging from 247 to 535 μm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) studies were performed to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after encapsulation into IPN microspheres. Drug encapsulation of up to 67% was achieved as measured by the UV method. Both equilibrium and dynamic swelling experiments were performed in water. Diffusion coefficients (D) of water transport through the microspheres were determined using an empirical equation. Values of D decrease with increasing crosslinking as well as increasing content of NaCMC in the matrix. In vitro release studies indicated a dependence of release rate on both the extent of crosslinking and the amount of NaCMC used to produce microspheres, but slow release was extended up to 10 h. Cumulative release data were fitted to an empirical equation to compute diffusional exponent (n), which indicated the non-Fickian trend for drug release.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-252
Number of pages10
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 15 2006


  • Crosslinking
  • Drug delivery
  • Hydrogels
  • Interpenetrating network
  • Ketorolac tromethamine
  • Microspheres

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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