Schistosome Sulfotransferases: Mode of Action, Expression and Localization

Meghan A. Guzman, Anastasia Rugel, Sevan N. Alwan, Reid Tarpley, Alexander B. Taylor, Frédéric D. Chevalier, George R. Wendt, James J. Collins, Timothy J.C. Anderson, Stanton F. McHardy, Philip T. Loverde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Oxamniquine (OXA) is a prodrug activated by a sulfotransferase (SULT) that was only active against Schistosoma mansoni. We have reengineered OXA to be effective against S. haematobium and S. japonicum. Three derivatives stand out, CIDD-0066790, CIDD-0072229, and CIDD-0149830 as they kill all three major human schistosome species. However, questions remain. Is the OXA mode of action conserved in derivatives? RNA-interference experiments demonstrate that knockdown of the SmSULT, ShSULT, and SjSULT results in resistance to CIDD-0066790. Confirming that the OXA-derivative mode of action is conserved. Next is the level of expression of the schistosome SULTs in each species, as well as changes in SULT expression throughout development in S. mansoni. Using multiple tools, our data show that SmSULT has higher expression compared to ShSULT and SjSULT. Third, is the localization of SULT in the adult, multicellular eucaryotic schistosome species. We utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization and uptake of radiolabeled OXA to determine that multiple cell types throughout the adult schistosome worm express SULT. Thus, we hypothesize the ability of many cells to express the sulfotransferase accounts for the ability of the OXA derivatives to kill adult worms. Our studies demonstrate that the OXA derivatives are able to kill all three human schistosome species and thus will be a useful complement to PZQ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1416
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • S. haematobium
  • S. japonicum
  • Schistosoma mansoni
  • mechanism of killing
  • oxamniquine derivatives
  • schistosomiasis
  • whole worm in situ hybridization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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