Role of Music for Conscious Sedation During Invasive Cardiac Catheterization

Ramin Ebrahimi, Weiyi Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Patients undergoing invasive cardiac catheterization (ICC) can experience anxiety and pain. A common practice in the United States is to administer benzodiazepines and opioids for conscious sedation to relieve these symptoms. Music may reduce anxiety and pain perception. We sought to evaluate the role of music in lieu of pharmacotherapy for conscious sedation during elective ICC. A retrospective data analysis was performed on patients who underwent ICC and received music therapy ± intravenous sedation/analgesics based on patient's preference compared with control patients who were offered and received intravenous sedation/analgesics based on patient's preference. A total of 161 patients were analyzed, 49 in the music arm, and 112 in the control arm. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups except that the rate of drug addiction, back pain, post-traumatic stress disorder, and hearing loss were higher in the control group when compared with the music arm. 42 (86%) of the patients in the music group and 29 (26%) of the control group received no sedation or analgesia in the periprocedural period. The average dose of midazolam (0.7 mg vs 0.1 mg, p <0.0001) and fentanyl (39.5 mcg vs 3 mcg, p <0.0001) was higher in the control than the music arm, respectively. 42 (86%) of patients receiving music therapy believed music was helpful in reducing their stress/anxiety levels. In conclusion, music may serve as adjunctive/alternative intervention to pharmacotherapy in relieving anxiety and stress for patients undergoing elective ICC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1095-1097
Number of pages3
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 15 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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