In the management of stone disease, the medical approach concerned with the prevention of stone recurrence is equally as important as the surgical removal of stones. The application of medical approach requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of stone formation. A wide variety of physiological or environmental disturbances have been identified in stone-forming patients. They include hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, undue urinary acidity and hyperuricosuria. Reliable diagnostic protocols have been developed which are based on the presence of above derangements. The prophylactic treatment programs are directed at the correction or amelioration of underlying environmental disturbances. Conservative measures include a high fluid intake, dietary sodium and oxalate restriction, dietary calcium restriction (in absorptive hypercalciuria and primary hyperparathyroidism), and moderate animal protein restriction. Specific medical treatments chosen for discussion are thiazide, slow-release neutral potassium phosphate, potassium citrate and potassium magnesium citrate.
|International Journal of Urology
|Published - 1996
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