Role of Flexible Cystoscopy in the Management of Postmenopausal Women With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Janett Ordonez, Alana L. Christie, Philippe E. Zimmern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate office flexible cystoscopy findings in the evaluation and management of postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs). Methods: An IRB-approved, prospectively maintained database of women evaluated for RUTIs at a tertiary care center was retrospectively reviewed by an independent investigator for flexible cystoscopy (FC) findings and related treatment decisions over three consecutive years. Data reviewed in the electronic medical record (EMR) included demographics, UTI history, history of diabetes, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), prior urological surgeries, sexual activity, coital antibiotic prophylaxis use, urine culture findings, antibiotic resistance/allergies, cystoscopy, and treatment plan. Results: Between 2017 and 2019, 113 consecutive postmenopausal women, mostly Caucasian, underwent flexible office cystoscopy to complete their RUTI evaluation. Eighty-four women (74%) had abnormal cystoscopy findings. The rate of overall abnormal findings on cystoscopy increased yearly, including findings of trigonitis (p = 0.022). Other abnormal cystoscopy findings, as well as post-evaluation treatment plans, did not significantly differ over time. Trigonitis was the most common (67%) finding on cystoscopy. RUTI management included exposed urethral/bladder mesh removal and/or electrofulguration of chronic cystitis areas. Conclusions: Flexible cystoscopy, as an office diagnostic procedure, can provide valuable information of underlying etiology of RUTIs and allow directed management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Cystoscopy
  • Evaluation
  • Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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