Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the scaffolding protein of caveolae, is expressed in several retinal cell types and is associated with ocular pathologies. Cav-1 modulates neuroinflammatory/neuroprotective responses to central nervous system injury. We have shown that loss of Cav-1 results in a blunted cytokine response in retinas challenged with inflammatory stimuli. As neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective signaling overlap in their cytokine production and downstream signaling pathways, we hypothesized that loss of Cav-1 may also suppress neuroprotective signaling in the retina. To test this, we subjected mice in which Cav-1 was deleted specifically in the retina to a neurodegenerative insult induced by sodium iodate (NaIO3) and measured STAT3 activation, a measure of neuroprotective signaling. Our results show that Cav-1 ablation blunts STAT3 activation induced by NaIO3. STAT3 activation in response to intravitreal administration of the IL-6 family cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), was not affected by Cav-1 deletion indicating a competent gp130 receptor response. Thus, Cav-1 modulates neuroprotective signaling by regulating the endogenous production of neuroprotective factors.