Replication and extension: Separate personality traits from states to predict depression

Jeffrey R. Vittengl, Lee Anna Clark, Michael E. Thase, Robin B. Jarrett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Changes in personality trait levels often parallel episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), whereas trait factor structures and substantial retest correlations are preserved. The authors explicated this dual state/ trait nature of personality assessments among adults with recurrent MDD (N = 351) receiving cognitive therapy (CT) by testing stability and change with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, 2nd Edition (SNAP-2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press), separating state and trait variance, and predicting depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes. Many SNAP scale scores changed in CT (e.g., positive temperament increased, negative temperament decreased), and decreases in depressive symptoms accounted for most scales’ score changes. Nonetheless, SNAP scales’ state and trait components predicted depressive symptoms early and late in CT as well as clinical outcomes, and state components predicted changes in symptoms and clinical outcomes. These results support the validity of the SNAP-2 among depressed patients and highlight the salience of personalityrelevant state affect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-246
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Personality Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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