Background. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) continues to increase in frequency as an indication for liver transplantation (LT). Data on long-term outcomes for these patients are limited. We aimed to compare long-term patient and graft survival in patients undergoing LT for NASH in the United States to other indications. Methods. We analyzed data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients of adult patients who underwent primary deceased-donor LT from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2019. Results. NASH has increased as an indication for LT by 4.5-fold, from 5.2% in 2005 to 23.4% in 2019. Patient (61.2%) and graft survival (59.2%) at 10 y are significantly poorer for NASH than for all other indications other than alcohol. Patients transplanted for NASH have higher body mass index (32.2 versus 27.6) and greater frequency of diabetes (13% versus 11.6%) than any other indication (P < 0.001). Portal vein thrombosis, location in intensive care unit, dialysis, and pre-LT diabetes (P < 0.001 for all) are independently predictive of patient death and graft loss. Body mass index is not predictive. NASH patients undergoing simultaneous liver kidney have markedly worse 10-y patient and graft survival than liver-only (52.3% versus 62.1%). Graft loss was attributed to recurrence of NASH in <1% of patients. Conclusions. LT for NASH is associated with relatively poor long-term patient and graft survival when compared with patients transplanted for other indications, NASH patients undergoing simultaneous liver kidney have the worst long-term outcomes.
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