Real-time confocal imaging of the living eye

James V. Jester, Harrison D Cavanagh, John Essepian, William J. Shields, Michael A. Lemp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


In 1986, we adapted the tandem scanning reflected light microscope of petran and hadraysky to permit non-invasive, confocal imaging of the living eye in real-time. we were first to obtain stable, confocal optical sections in vivo, from human and animal eyes. using confocal imaging systems we have now studied living, normal volunteers, rabbits, cats and primates sequentially, non-invasively, and in real-time. the continued development of real-time confocal imaging systems will unlock the door to a new field of cell biology involving for the first time the study of dynamic cellular processes in living organ systems. towards this end we have concentrated our initial studies on three areas (1) evaluation of confocal microscope systems for real-time image acquisition, (2) studies of the living normal cornea (epithelium, stroma, endothelium) in human and other species; and (3) sequential wound-healing responses in the cornea in single animals to lamellar-keratectomy injury (cellular migration, inflammation, scarring). we believe that this instrument represents an important, new paradigm for research in cell biology and pathology and that it will fundamentally alter all experimental and clinical approaches in future years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)366-376
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Dec 22 1989

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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