Quantitative characterization of gait kinematics in patients with hallux rigidus using the Milwaukee Foot Model

Karl Canseco, Jason Long, Richard Marks, Michael S Khazzam, Gerald Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the changes that occur in the foot and ankle during the gait of patients with hallux rigidus. Using a 15-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System, gait analysis was conducted on a population of 22 patients with hallux rigidus and compared to that of 25 healthy ambulators. Weight-bearing radiographs were measured to index marker positions to underlying bony anatomy. The Milwaukee Foot Model was used to perform three-dimensional analysis of dynamic foot and ankle motion, and temporal-spatial parameters were also calculated. Values were compared to controls using unpaired parametric methods (Student t-test, p < 0.002). The hallux rigidus population showed significant alterations in gait patterns as compared to controls in various planes in all segments (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, and tibia) of the foot and ankle, particularly in the range of motion of the hallux and the forefoot. Prolonged stance phase was also observed. As reports regarding the quantitative study of the multisegment foot and ankle are limited, this study was useful in providing characterization of gait patterns in patients with hallux rigidus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-427
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2008


  • Foot and ankle
  • Gait
  • Hallux rigidus
  • Kinematics
  • Multisegmental foot model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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