Quality of Life and its Determinants in Patients With Adrenal Insufficiency: A Survey Study at 3 Centers in the United States

Dingfeng Li, Sarah Brand, Oksana Hamidi, Ashleigh A. Westfall, Malavika Suresh, Tobias Else, Anand Vaidya, Irina Bancos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Context: Current evidence on determinants of quality of life (QoL) in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) is limited. Objective: This work aimed to identify the determinants of QoL in different subtypes of AI. Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional survey study was conducted using a patient-centered questionnaire, the Short Form-36. Results: Of 529 participants, 223 (42.2%) had primary AI, 190 (35.9%) had secondary AI, and 116 (21.9%) had glucocorticoid-induced AI. Median age was 58 years (interquartile range: 43-68 years) and 342 (64.8%) were women. In multivariable analyses, patients were more likely to report worse physical scores if they were women (odds ratio [OR]: 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), had secondary AI or glucocorticoid-induced AI (OR: 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.3), had shorter duration of AI (OR: 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6), were treated with more than 25 mg hydrocortisone equivalent daily (OR: 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.6), had more comorbidities related to glucocorticoid excess (OR: 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.0), reported a higher financial burden from AI (OR: 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.6), and reported difficulties with AI management (OR: 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.2). Women (OR: 2.1; 95% CI, 1.08-4.0), shorter duration of AI (OR: 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.3), higher financial burden (OR: 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.0), difficulties with AI management (OR: 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9), and lack of family support (OR: 9.1; 95% CI, 2.3-33.3) were associated with worse mental component scores. Conclusion: In patients with AI, QoL could be improved by addressing certain determinants, such as avoiding GC overreplacement, providing in-depth education on self-management, offering more comprehensive insurance coverage, and ensuring better family support.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2851-E2861
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • glucocorticoid therapy
  • health care delivery
  • management
  • subjective health status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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