Prostate cancer is one of the most heritable human cancers. Genome-wide association studies have identified at least 185 prostate cancer germline risk alleles, most noncoding. We used integrative three-dimensional (3D) spatial genomics to identify the chromatin interaction targets of 45 prostate cancer risk alleles, 31 of which were associated with the transcriptional regulation of target genes in 565 localized prostate tumors. To supplement these 31, we verified transcriptional targets for 56 additional risk alleles using linear proximity and linkage disequilibrium analysis in localized prostate tumors. Some individual risk alleles influenced multiple target genes; others specifically influenced only distal genes while leaving proximal ones unaffected. Several risk alleles exhibited widespread germline–somatic interactions in transcriptional regulation, having different effects in tumors with loss of PTEN or RB1 relative to those without. These data clarify functional prostate cancer risk alleles in large linkage blocks and outline a strategy to model multidimensional transcriptional regulation. SIGNIFICANCE: Many prostate cancer germline risk alleles are enriched in the noncoding regions of the genome and are hypothesized to regulate transcription. We present a 3D genomics framework to unravel risk SNP function and describe the widespread germline–somatic interplay in transcription control.
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