Promoting fruit and vegetable intake in parents: A cluster randomised controlled trial

Yuying Sun, Samantha S.W. Fung, Patrick K.W. Man, Alice N.T. Wan, Sunita Stewart, Tai Hing Lam, Sai Yin Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial of parents in 56 primary schools and community service centres (clusters) to evaluate the effectiveness of a single-session workshop on promoting more fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. A total of 803 parents were randomised to the FV intervention arm (16 clusters, n = 197), the more appreciation control arm (19 clusters, n = 270), or the less criticism control arm (21 clusters, n = 336). The FV intake of the FV arm was compared with that of the combined more appreciation or less criticism (MALC) arm. Both arms received a 2 h workshop: (i) the FV arm on increasing FV consumption and related food literacy; (ii) the MALC arm on increasing appreciation or reducing criticism of children. Primary outcomes were FV consumption per day in the past week assessed at baseline, 2-weeks, and 6-weeks. Secondary outcomes were behavioural determinants proposed by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), including outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and planning behaviour. The FV arm had a greater increase in FV consumption than the MALC arm, with large effect sizes (d: 0.97–1.08) and improvements in behavioural determinants with small effect sizes at all time points (d: 0.19–0.43). Our study was the first population-based randomised controlled trial to show that a brief, single 2 h HAPA-based workshop was effective in promoting fruit and vegetable intake in parents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5206
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 2 2021


  • Behaviour change
  • Dietary intakes
  • Fruit and vegetable
  • Primary prevention
  • Randomised controlled trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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