There are many methods that can be used for the production of vaporizable phase-shift droplets for imaging and therapy. Each method utilizes different techniques and varies in price, materials, and purpose. Many of these fabrication methods result in polydisperse populations with non-uniform activation thresholds. Additionally, controlling the droplet sizes typically requires stable perfluorocarbon liquids with high activation thresholds that are not practical in vivo. Producing uniform droplet sizes using low-boiling point gases would be beneficial for in vivo imaging and therapy experiments. This article describes a simple and economical method for the formation of size-filtered lipid-stabilized phase-shift nanodroplets with low-boiling point decafluorobutane (DFB). A common method of generating lipid microbubbles is described, in addition to a novel method of condensing them with high-pressure extrusion in a single step. This method is designed to save time, maximize efficiency, and generate larger volumes of microbubble and nanodroplet solutions for a wide variety of applications using common laboratory equipment found in many biological laboratories.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Neuroscience
- General Chemical Engineering
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- General Immunology and Microbiology