Primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in older racial and ethnic minority patients

Sean D. Pokorney, Anne S. Hellkamp, Clyde W. Yancy, Lesley H. Curtis, Stephen C. Hammill, Eric D. Peterson, Frederick A. Masoudi, Deepak L. Bhatt, Hussein R. Al-Khalidi, Paul A. Heidenreich, Kevin J. Anstrom, Gregg C. Fonarow, Sana M. Al-Khatib

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background - Racial and ethnic minorities are under-represented in clinical trials of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). This analysis investigates the association between primary prevention ICDs and mortality among Medicare, racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods and Results - Data from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry and National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry were used to perform an adjusted comparative effectiveness analysis of primary prevention ICDs in Medicare, racial/ethnic minority patients (nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity). Mortality data were obtained from the Medicare denominator file. The relationship of ICD with survival was compared between minority and white non-Hispanic patients. Our analysis included 852 minority patients, 426 ICD and 426 matched non-ICD patients, and 2070 white non-Hispanic patients (1035 ICD and 1035 matched non-ICD patients). Median follow-up was 3.1 years. Median age was 73 years, and median ejection fraction was 23%. Adjusted 3-year mortality rates for minority ICD and non-ICD patients were 44.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.2%-45.7%) and 54.3% (95% CI, 53.4%-55.1%), respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.034). White non-Hispanic patients receiving an ICD had lower adjusted 3-year mortality rates of 47.8% (95% CI, 47.3%-48.3%) compared with 57.3% (95% CI, 56.8%-57.9%) for those with no ICD (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.67%-0.83%; P<0.0001). There was no significant interaction between race/ethnicity and lower mortality risk with ICD (P=0.70). Conclusions - Primary prevention ICDs are associated with lower mortality in nonwhite and Hispanic patients, similar to that seen in white, non-Hispanic patients. These data support a similar approach to ICD patient selection, regardless of race or ethnicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-151
Number of pages7
JournalCirculation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 28 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • continental population groups
  • death, sudden
  • defibrillators, implantable, ethnology
  • minority groups
  • primary prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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