Prenatally diagnosed neck masses: Long-term outcomes and quality of life

Fariha Sheikh, Adesola Akinkuotu, Oluyinka O. Olutoye, Sheena Pimpalwar, Christopher I. Cassady, Caraciolo J. Fernandes, Rodrigo Ruano, Timothy C. Lee, Darrell L. Cass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Purpose To determine long-term outcomes of fetuses with neck masses (NM), including functional and cosmetic results. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all fetuses evaluated for NM from November 2001 to March 2014. Quality of life (QOL) was evaluated using the validated PedsQL™ questionnaire. Results Of 35 fetuses evaluated, 9 died perinatally and 1 died late from tracheostomy complications. NM ranged from 4 to 20 cm (mean, 9.1 cm); 18 were delivered by EXIT. Of 25 surviving patients, 22 had mass resection, 7 requiring more than one procedure. Surviving patients with lymphatic malformations (LM) had the highest incidence of moderate and severe disfigurement and a higher rate of persistent/recurrent disease (100% vs. 31%, p = 0.002) and cranial nerve dysfunction (50% vs. 0%, p = 0.005) compared to those with non-LM diagnoses. Of 9 children attending school, 78% achieve grades of A/B's. QOL for 13 patients revealed a mean score of 83/100 for physical and 78/100 for psychosocial functioning. Median follow-up was 6 years (7 months-17 years). Conclusion Unlike those with teratoma or other lesions, children with congenital cervicofacial LM are at high-risk for persistent disease, nerve dysfunction and moderate-severe disfigurement. There is substantial perinatal morbidity for fetuses with neck masses, but for those surviving, the long-term functional and cognitive outcomes are good.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1210-1213
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Cervical lymphatic malformation
  • Cervical teratoma
  • Cervical thyroid cyst
  • Cervical vascular malformation
  • Fetal neck mass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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