Predictive risk factors of venous thromboembolism in autologous breast reconstruction surgery

Hossein Masoomi, Keyianoosh Z. Paydar, Garrett A. Wirth, Al Aly, Mark R. Kobayashi, Gregory R.D. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in autologous breast reconstruction surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of patient characteristics, comorbidities, payer type, reconstruction type, reconstruction timing, radiation, chemotherapy, and teaching status of hospital on VTE (deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) in autologous breast reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we examined the clinical data of patients who underwent autologous breast reconstructive surgery in 2009 to 2010 in the United States. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of in-hospital VTE. RESULTS: A total of 35,883 patients underwent autologous breast reconstructive surgery during this period. Overall rate of VTE was 0.13%. The highest rate of VTE (0.26%) was observed in pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. Patients who experienced VTE had significantly longer mean hospital stay (11.6 vs 3.9 days; P < 0.001) and higher mean total hospital charges ($146,432 vs $61,794; P < 0.001) compared with non-VTE patients; however, there was no significant difference observed in mortality rate (VTE, 0.0% vs non-VTE, 0.04%; P = 0.886). Using multivariate regression analysis, immediate reconstruction after mastectomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.4), older than 65 years (AOR, 4.2), obesity (AOR, 3.7), history of chemotherapy (AOR, 3.5), and chronic lung disease (AOR, 2.5) were associated with higher risk of VTE. There was no association between race, payer type, diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, smoking, reconstruction type, radiation, or teaching status of hospital on VTE. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction surgery, immediate reconstruction, older than 65 years, obesity, history of chemotherapy, and chronic lung disease are all independent predictors of higher VTE. Surgeons should consider these factors and use appropriate prophylaxis to minimize the risk of VTE development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-33
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of plastic surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Autologous breast reconstructive surgery
  • Risk factors
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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