Preclinical and clinical evidence of NAD+ precursors in health, disease, and ageing

Ole Kristian Reiten, Martin Andreas Wilvang, Sarah J. Mitchell, Zeping Hu, Evandro F. Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


NAD+ is a fundamental molecule in human life and health as it participates in energy metabolism, cell signalling, mitochondrial homeostasis, and in dictating cell survival or death. Emerging evidence from preclinical and human studies indicates an age-dependent reduction of cellular NAD+, possibly due to reduced synthesis and increased consumption. In preclinical models, NAD+ repletion extends healthspan and / or lifespan and mitigates several conditions, such as premature ageing diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. These findings suggest that NAD+ replenishment through NAD+ precursors has great potential as a therapeutic target for ageing and age-predisposed diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we provide an updated review on the biological activity, safety, and possible side effects of NAD+ precursors in preclinical and clinical studies. Major NAD+ precursors focused on by this review are nicotinamide riboside (NR), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), and the new discovered dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH). In summary, NAD+ precursors have an exciting therapeutic potential for ageing, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111567
JournalMechanisms of Ageing and Development
StatePublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Ageing
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Healthspan
  • NAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Developmental Biology


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