The polytopic, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase produces mevalonate, the key intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol and many nonsterol isoprenoids including geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp). Transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational feedback mechanisms converge on this reductase to ensure cells maintain a sufficient supply of essential nonsterol isoprenoids but avoid overaccumulation of cholesterol and other sterols. The focus of this review is mechanisms for the posttranslational regulation of HMG CoA reductase, which include sterol-accelerated ubiquitination and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that is augmented by GGpp. We discuss how GGpp-induced ER-to-Golgi trafficking of the vitamin K2 synthetic enzyme UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) modulates HMG CoA reductase ERAD to balance the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids. We also summarize the characterization of genetically manipulated mice, which established that sterol-accelerated, UBIAD1-modulated ERAD plays a major role in regulation of HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism in vivo.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||21|
|Journal||Annual review of biochemistry|
|State||Published - Jun 20 2021|
- ER-associated degradation
- Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate
ASJC Scopus subject areas