Post-Translational Regulation of HMG CoA Reductase

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized integral membrane protein that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol and many nonsterol isoprenoids including geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp). HMGCR is subjected to strict feedback control through multiple mechanisms to ensure cells constantly produce essential nonsterol isoprenoids, but do not overaccumulate cholesterol. Here, we focus on the mechanism of feedback control of HMGCR that involves its sterol-induced ubiquitination and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that is augmented by GGpp. We will also discuss the how GGpp-regulated intracellular trafficking of the vitamin K2 synthetic enzyme UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) inhibits HMGCR ERAD to balance the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids. Finally, we will summarize various mouse models, the characterization of which establish that sterol-accel-erated, UBIAD1-modulated ERAD plays a major role in regulation of HMGCR and cholesterol metabolism in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbera041253
JournalCold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 8 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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