PI-RADS version 2.1: A critical review, from the AJR special series on radiology reporting and data systems

Andrei S. Purysko, Ronaldo H. Baroni, Francesco Giganti, Daniel Costa, Raphaele Renard-Penna, Chan Kyo Kim, Steven S. Raman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


PI-RADS version 2.1 updates the technical parameters for multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate and revises the imaging interpretation criteria while maintaining the framework introduced in version 2. These changes have been considered an improvement, although some issues remain unresolved, and new issues have emerged. Areas for improvement discussed in this review include the need for more detailed mpMRI protocols with optimization for 1.5-T and 3-T systems; lack of validation of revised transition zone interpretation criteria and need for clarifications of the revised DWI and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging criteria and central zone (CZ) assessment; the need for systematic evaluation and reporting of background changes in signal intensity in the prostate that can negatively affect cancer detection; creation of a new category for lesions that do not fit into the PI-RADS assessment categories (i.e., PI-RADS M category); inclusion of quantitative parameters beyond size to evaluate lesion aggressiveness; adjustments to the structured report template, including standardized assessment of the risk of extraprostatic extension; development of parameters for image quality and performance control; and suggestions for expansion of the system to other indications (e.g., active surveillance and recurrence).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-32
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • MRI
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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