Personalized 3D exergames for in-home rehabilitation after stroke: a pilot study

Kevin Desai, Balakrishnan Prabhakaran, Nneka Ifejika, Thiru M. Annaswamy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: To describe a novel 3-dimensional (3D) exergames system and the results of a clinical feasibility study of stroke survivors needing in-home rehabilitation. Materials and methods: The customisable Personalized In-home eXErgames for Rehabilitation (PIXER) system captures the user’s image, generates a live model, and incorporates it into a virtual exergame. PIXER provides a recording system for home exercise programs (HEPs) by adapting virtual objects, customizes the exergame and creates a digital diary. Ten persons with stroke, performed HEPs with PIXER for 1 month, and without PIXER for 2 additional months. In-game performance data, measures of physical functioning (PF) including Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Timed Up & Go (TUG) and Goal Attainment (GA) Scale obtained at baseline, 1- and 3 months were evaluated. Results: Seventy percent of participants completed the 1-month timepoint, 50% completed all timepoints. In-game data: Number of repetitions completed; Anomalies reported; and Percentage of bubbles hit showed positive trends. Compared to baseline, all SIS physical functioning (PF) scores were higher at 1 month, TUG scores showed no overall improvement and GA scale scores were 77% at 3 months. Conclusion: It is feasible for community-dwelling patients to perform HEP after stroke using PIXER, a novel, exergames system, and potentially improve their function.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Home Exercises performed using a novel, 3-dimensional, customizable Personalized In-home eXErgames for Rehabilitation (PIXER) system is feasible for community-dwelling patients after stroke. In-game performance data obtained in this clinical pilot study showed positive trends of improvement in several study participants. PIXER has potential to improve functional outcomes for community-dwelling adults with stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)704-713
Number of pages10
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2023


  • Rehabilitation
  • computer games
  • exercise therapy
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Speech and Hearing
  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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