Pelvic Congestion Syndrome and Pelvic Varicosities

Sonya Koo, Chieh Min Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Pelvic venous insufficiency (PVI), defined as retrograde flow in the gonadal and internal iliac veins, is the underlying cause of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), a common cause of disabling chronic pelvic pain in women of child-bearing age. PCS is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by positional pelvic pain that is worse in the upright position and is associated with pelvic and vulvar varicosities as well as symptoms of dyspareunia and postcoital pain. Through collaterals to the lower extremity venous system, PVI may also contribute to varicose vein formation and recurrence in the lower extremities. Endovascular embolization of the ovarian and internal iliac veins has become the treatment of choice for PVI and PCS. This article reviews the pelvic retroperitoneal venous anatomy, pathophysiology of PCS, treatment options and techniques, and clinical outcomes of embolotherapy for PCS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)90-95
Number of pages6
JournalTechniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Embolization
  • Pelvic pain
  • Venous insufficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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