Pearls: Diplopia

Deborah I Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Double vision may arise from ocular, neurologic, or extraocular muscle disorders. The approach to patients with diplopia requires a systematic approach to the history and the physical examination. There are many challenges in the evaluation of diplopia, ranging from the patients mental status to the fine points of the examination. This article provides a process for interviewing and examining these patients, explaining the rationale and differential diagnosis of various clinical presentations. Common causes of monocular and binocular diplopia are addressed by the pattern of diplopia described by the patient. The examination and the interpretation of examination findings are presented by incorporating the upside-down-and-backwards concept. This review offers some Pearlsperhaps even diamondson evaluating patients who complain of diplopia, as well as those who have eye movement abnormalities but cant articulate their symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-65
Number of pages12
JournalSeminars in Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 22 2010


  • Diplopia
  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
  • Maddox rod
  • Skew deviation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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