Outcomes of carotid stenting in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia

Jesus Porras-Colon, Carla K. Scott, Alejandro Pizano, Anna Driessen, Carlos H. Timaran, John G. Modrall, Shirling Tsai, Melissa L. Kirkwood, Bala Ramanan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory arterial disease that affects the extracranial carotid arteries in young patients. The ideal treatment of FMD has continued to be debated, and the role of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and outcomes of CAS for patients with FMD. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who had undergone CAS was performed using the Vascular Quality Initiative database from December 2012 to May 2021. Patients who had undergone CAS for atherosclerosis and FMD were included and matched 1:1 by age, gender, and clinical presentation. The demographics, clinical parameters, and procedural data were analyzed. The end points included postoperative stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), and adverse events (perioperative and 1-year mortality, neurologic changes, access site complications, hematoma or bleeding, infection, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, reperfusion symptoms), and hospital length of stay. Results: After matching, 55 patients had undergone CAS for FMD (mean age, 58.7 ± 14 years; 62% women; 69% White; mean body mass index, 28 ± 6 kg/m2). Most of these procedures (69%) were elective. The FMD group had had a lower rate of hypertension (55% vs 82%; P =.002), smoking (35% vs 80%; P <.001), diabetes (13% vs 45%; P <.001), and coronary artery disease (9% vs 45%; P <.001) compared with the non-FMD group. In the FMD group, prior TIA and stroke was identified in 39 (71%) and 31 (57%) patients, respectively. The mean interval from a prior stroke or TIA to the index surgery was 160 days. Additionally, 23 patients (42%) had had anatomically high lesions above the level of the second cervical vertebra. In the FMD group, the transfemoral approach was used for 43 patients (78%), with distal embolic protection used for 40 patients (93%). Flow reversal was used for nine patients (23%). Most cases were performed with local anesthesia (58%). Three patients (6%) in the FMD group had had access site complications that were managed nonoperatively. No differences were found between the FMD and non-FMD groups in perioperative stroke, TIA, or 30-day mortality. The length of stay was similar between the two groups, and the 1-year survival was 100% for both groups. All the patients in the FMD group were discharged without neurologic complications, and 50 patients (91%) were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. The median follow-up was 328 days (interquartile range, 1-732 days) with no mortality or reinterventions during follow-up. Conclusions: CAS for FMD is a feasible and safe procedure with favorable technical success, a low incidence of neurologic complications, and good clinical outcomes at 1 year of follow-up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)829-835
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of vascular surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • Carotid artery diseases
  • Carotid stent
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Vasculitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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