Outcome measures assisting treatment optimization in multiple sclerosis

Gabriel Pardo, Samantha Coates, Darin T. Okuda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To review instruments used to assess disease stability or progression in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) that can guide clinicians in optimizing therapy. Methods: A non-systematic review of scientific literature was undertaken to explore modalities of monitoring symptoms and the disease evolution of MS. Results: Multiple outcome measures, or tools, have been developed for use in MS research as well as for the clinical management of pwMS. Beginning with the Expanded Disability Status Scale, introduced in 1983, clinicians and researchers have developed monitoring modalities to assess all aspects of MS and the neurological impairment it causes. Conclusions: Much progress has been made in recent decades for the management of MS and for the evaluation of disease progression. New technology, such as wearable sensors, will provide new opportunities to better understand changes in function, dexterity, and cognition. Essential work over the decades since EDSS was introduced continues to improve our ability to treat this debilitating disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1282-1297
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Cognition
  • Dexterity
  • Function
  • Monitoring modalities
  • Multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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