Orexin Projections and Localization of Orexin Receptors

Jacob N. Marcus, Joel K. Elmquist

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

11 Scopus citations


The past several years have provided important insights into the physiological significance of the central orexin system. An important component of these is an increased understanding of the unique neuroanatomy of the orexin/hypocretin system. The orexin peptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, are produced in a restricted region of the central nervous system, the neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area. From this small neuronal source, on the order of a few thousand neurons, orexin-expressing neurons project over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord. At the terminals of these projections, orexin interacts with two distinct receptors, the orexin-1 receptor and the orexin-2 receptor. Given the diffuse projection pattern of orexincontaining axons, it is not surprising that orexin receptor expression has been described in a large number of brain areas. This chapter briefly outlines the brain regions innervated by hypothalamic orexin neurons and provides an overview of the distribution of each receptor subtype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationContemporary Clinical Neuroscience
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages23
StatePublished - 2005

Publication series

NameContemporary Clinical Neuroscience
ISSN (Print)2627-535X
ISSN (Electronic)2627-5341


  • Basal Forebrain
  • Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
  • Lateral Hypothalamic Area
  • Lateral Hypothalamus
  • Locus Coeruleus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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