Oral and ocular manifestations of HIV infection

Robert H. Cook-Norris, Antoanella Calame, Clay J Cockerell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic, superficial fungal infection that is a feature of primary HIV infection12 and is commonly found in late-stage disease of patients progressing to AIDS.13-16 The species most commonly isolated in HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts is Candida albicans although other species have been documented, albeit less frequently.17 Since C. albicans is part of normal flora, infection is an indicator of immunosuppres - sion. As would be expected, declining CD4 counts are correlated with an increased prevalence of oral candidiasis.1,18,19 Epidemiologic studies have documented that 43-93% of individuals with AIDS have oral candidiasis.20 Oral candidiasis presenting in HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART is a clinical marker of immune failure and, although it is strongly associated with HIV infection, it is also seen in xerostomia, diabetes, antibiotic and steroid use, with other medications, as well as in other immuno - suppressive conditions.21.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781840766042
ISBN (Print)9781840761429
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Oral and ocular manifestations of HIV infection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this