On-resonance low B1 pulses for imaging of the effects of PARACEST agents

Elena Vinogradov, Shanrong Zhang, Angelo Lubag, James A. Balschi, A. Dean Sherry, Robert E. Lenkinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Application of the exchange-sensitive, low-power RF pulses positioned on the bulk water resonance for imaging of the effects of PARACEST agents is proposed as an alternative to the standard CW off-resonance irradiation. Specifically, we applied a low-power WALTZ-16 RF train, with the 90°pulse unit replaced by a pulse of the fixed length (WALTZ-16*). Using this sequence, the bulk water signal was found to be sensitive to exchange lifetimes with PARACEST complex bound protons, the transverse relaxation time of bulk water, and longitudinal relaxation time of bound protons. In this report, the concept of using WALTZ-16* to "activate" a PARACEST effect is introduced and some of the salient features of this technique with respect to experimental conditions and performance levels are discussed. Computational predictions are verified and explored by comparison with experimental spectroscopic and imaging data. It is shown that WALTZ-16* can be used to detect PARACEST agents with an RF intensity as low as 200 Hz for concentrations as low as a few tens of μM for lanthanide chelates having appropriate water-exchange rates (Tm,Dy).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-63
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2005


  • Contrast
  • Exchange
  • Low B WALTZ-16
  • Relaxation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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