Ocular adnexal lymphoma: Assessment of a tumor-node-metastasis staging system

Mary E. Aronow, Craig A. Portell, Lisa A. Rybicki, John W. Sweetenham, Arun D. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Purpose: To assess distribution, correlations, and prognostic effect of tumor (T), node (N), and metastasis (M) staging on relapse and survival. Design: Retrospective clinical review. Participants: Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) between January 1986 and November 2011. Methods: Complete ocular examination and systemic evaluation were performed. Patients were staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) seventh edition tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) clinical staging system for OAL and followed every 6 to 12 months (median follow-up, 27.9 months). Main Outcome Measures: Relapse defined as lymphoma recurrence in the initial site of presentation, the contralateral ocular adnexal structures, or other systemic site and overall survival. Results: There were 40 men (63.5%). The median age was 65 years (range, 24-85 years). The affected site was the conjunctiva in 27 patients (42.9%), orbit in 38 patients (60.3%), and eyelid in 3 patients (4.8%). The histologic subtype was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) in 51 patients (81.0%). A total of 14 patients (23.3%) had T1, 42 patients (70.0%) had T2, 1 patient (1.7%) had T3, and 3 patients (5.0%) had T4 disease. A total of 48 patients (82.8%) had N0 disease, and 10 patients (17.2%) had N1-4 disease. M stage was M0 in 47 patients (81.0%) and M1 in 11 patients (19.0%). With advanced T stage, there was an increase in both N1-4 (P = 0.045) and M1 disease (P = 0.041). M1 disease was greater among patients with N1-4 disease compared with N0 stage (50.0% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.003). Overall, 18 patients (28.6%) relapsed and 6 patients (9.5%) died. In Cox analysis, relapse was not associated with T stage (hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 per 1 level increase, P = 0.71), N stage (HR, 1.47; P = 0.51 N1-4 vs. N0), or M stage (HR, 1.22; P = 0.76 M1 vs. M0). T stage was not associated with survival (HR, 0.86; P = 0.81), whereas N1-4 had marginally worse survival than N0 (HR, 5.35; P = 0.07), and M1 had worse survival than M0 (HR, 9.27; P = 0.008). Conclusions: The TNM staging system for primary OAL is useful for precise characterization of extent of local disease. Although T stage does not predict relapse or survival, N1-4 and M1 stages indicated less favorable survival. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1915-1919
Number of pages5
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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