Nucleotide-binding-oligomerization domain proteins and toll-like receptors: Sensors of the inflammatory bowel diseases' microbial environment

Tobias Mueller, Daniel K. Podolsky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases appear to result from inappropriate immune responses driven by apparently normal intestinal microflora in genetically susceptible hosts. This review focuses on recently. described mechanisms balancing toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding- oligomerization domain activation in the face of ubiquitous enteric flora. Recent findings: foil-like receptor and nucleotide-btnding-oligomerization domain signaling plays an integral role in the close Collaboration between the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer and adjacent mucosal immune cells. Pathways activated by functional cytosolic nucleotide-binding-oligomerization domain proteins appear to interact with those mediated by membrane-associated toll-like receptors in the innate and adaptive immune defense against intra- and extracellular pathogens. Nucleotide-binding-oligomerization domain-mediated signaling may also control toll-like receptor-induced proinflammatory pathways. Summary: Intersections between toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding- oligomerization domain pathways may exist to refine the host immune response to pathogens and prevent undesired immune stimulation driven by the intestinal microbiota. Deficient toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding-oligomerization domain function due to genetic variability is associated with an increased susceptibility to the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-425
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2005


  • Immune tolerance
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Intestinal epithelial cell monolayer
  • Intestinal microflora
  • Intestinal mucosa
  • Nuclear factor-κB
  • Nudeotide-binding-oligomerization domain protein
  • Toll-like receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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