Novalis shaped beam radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations

Alessandra G. Pedroso, Antonio A F De Salles, Katayoun Tajik, Raymond Golish, Zachary Smith, Leonardo Frighetto, Timothy Solberg, Cynthia Cabatan-Awang, Michael T. Selch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Object. The authors studied outcomes and complications in patients who harbored arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and underwent stereotactic radiosurgery involving the Novalis shaped beam unit. Methods. Between January 1998 and January 2002, 83 patients were treated with radiosurgery at University of California, Los Angeles. The mean patient age was 37.8 years. Forty-four patients completed follow up. There were 24 women. Sixteen patients underwent repeated radiosurgery. Embolization was performed in 13 patients and radiosurgery alone in 31. The mean follow-up period after embolization was 54.4 ± 21.9 months and 37.4 ± 14.6 months for radiosurgery alone. The mean peripheral dose was 15 Gy (range 12-18 Gy). The mean preradiosurgery lesion volume was 9.7 ± 11.9 ml for radiosurgery alone and 16.2 ± 11.3 ml for embolization. The AVMs in 13 patients (29.8%) were Spetzler-Martin Grade II, 12 (27.5%) were Grade III, eight (18.2%) Grade IV, and five (11.3%) were Grade V and VI each. Spetzler-Martin grade, volume, and peripheral dose were analyzed in consideration to outcome. A positive trend (p = 0.086) was observed between Spetzler-Martin grade and obliteration rate. Volume per se did not predict obliteration (p = 0.48). A peripheral dose of 18 Gy was shown to be the most important predictor for occlusion (p = 0.007). The overall obliteration rate was 52.5%. A transient complication was noticed in one case (2.3%) and but no permanent deficits due to radiosurgery have been detected so far. Three patients (6.8%) bled after radiosurgery. Conclusions. The range of the prescribed peripheral dose was narrow. An association between the mean peripheral dose of 15 Gy, high conformality, and homogeneous dose distribution permitted no permanent complications. Volume per se did not correlate with outcome. The next step will be to increase the peripheral dose shaping the beam and to achieve higher obliteration rates without increasing complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)425-434
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
StatePublished - Nov 2004


  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • Conformality
  • Hypofractionated radiation therapy
  • Peripheral dose
  • Radiosurgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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