Normothermic Machine Perfusion in pediatric liver transplantation: A survey of attitudes and barriers

Yash Kadakia, Malcolm P MacConmara, Madhukar S. Patel, Jigesh A. Shah, Lucia de Gregorio Muniz, Dev M. Desai, Steven Hanish, Parsia A. Vagefi, Christine S. Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: NMP provides a superior strategy for the assessment and preservation of marginal donor livers and has demonstrated increased utilization and enhances organ quality when used in adult liver transplantation. We aimed to evaluate the interest of incorporating the use of NMP in pediatric liver transplantation. Methods: An anonymous online survey was distributed to pediatric transplant surgeons and hepatologists across the United States. Respondent demographic information, attitudes toward NMP in pediatric liver transplantation, and barriers to utilization were examined. Results: Thirty-two providers (18 transplant surgeons and 14 hepatologists) completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 64%. Half (50%) of respondents indicated prior exposure to NMP. Overall, 96% of respondents believed there was benefit to using NMP in pediatric liver transplantation. DCD (68%) and post–cross-clamp (75%) grafts were the greatest opportunity for NMP use. A role in splitting livers ex vivo (71%) was also seen as a potential major opportunity. Cost was perceived as a barrier to implementation (36%), followed by institutional factors (32%). Cost tolerance was significantly greater in respondents residing in OPTN regions with greater than median wait times (63% vs. 11% in OPTN regions with greater vs. shorter wait times, p =.010). Conclusions: There is significant interest within the pediatric liver transplant community for NMP to expand the donor pool. Interest appears particularly strong in regions where wait times for suitable pediatric donors are prolonged.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPediatric Transplantation
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • liver transplantation
  • machine perfusion
  • NMP
  • pediatric liver transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Transplantation


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