Nonstationarity of stable states in rhythmic bimanual coordination

Eric G. James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The HKB model and its variants characterize bimanual coordination with fixed-point dynamics and predict stationarity of the mean and variance of relative phase in stable coordinative states. In the current study, participants performed in-phase and antiphase coordination modes in rhythmic bimanual finger and elbow flexion-extension tasks. The results of runs tests revealed that discrete relative phase was nonstationary in 49.25%, 50.25%, and 54% of time-series in the 10, 20, and 30 box runs tests, respectively. In all individual Task conditions >38% of time-series were nonstationary. These findings contradicted model predictions that the mean and variance of relative phase are stationary in bimanual coordination and distinguish the concept of dynamical stability from statistical stationarity. The findings indicated that relative phase was not attracted to a stationary fixed-point and that fluctuations in relative phase are not Gaussian white noise as in existing models of bimanual coordination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-198
Number of pages15
JournalMotor Control
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2014


  • Bimanual
  • Coordination
  • Dynamics
  • Stationarity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)


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