Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

Clark A. Rosen, Ted Mau, Marc Remacle, Markus Hess, Hans E. Eckel, VyVy N. Young, Anastasios Hantzakos, Katherine C. Yung, Frederik G. Dikkers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold impairment. Overarching terms of vocal fold immobility and hypomobility are rigorously defined. This includes assessment techniques and inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining vocal fold immobility and hypomobility. In addition, criteria for use of the following terms have been outlined in detail: vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold immobility/hypomobility associated with mechanical impairment of the crico-arytenoid joint and vocal fold immobility/hypomobility related to laryngeal malignant disease. This represents the first rigorously defined vocal fold motion impairment nomenclature system. This provides detailed definitions to the terms vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1995-1999
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Nomenclature
  • Vocal fold motion
  • Vocal fold paralysis
  • Vocal fold paresis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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