New ambulatory impedance cardiograph validated against the Minnesota Impedance Cardiograph

Paul A. Nakonezny, Ray B. Kowalewski, John M. Ernst, Louise C. Hawkley, David L. Lozano, Daniel A. Litvack, Gary G. Berntson, John J. Sollers, Paul Kizakevich, John T. Cacioppo, William R. Lovallo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The validity and reliability of a new ambulatory impedance cardiograph (AZCG) was tested against the Minnesota Impedance Cardiograph (ZCG) during rest, orthostasis, and mental stress. Impedance cardiography allows noninvasive assessment of stroke volume, cardiac output, and systolic time intervals. A reliable ambulatory device would allow studies outside the lab. The devices were compared at two sites in healthy subjects. In both studies, the AZCG tracked changes across conditions closely with the ZCG (all Period × Device interactions were nonsignificant). Pearson rs, were .65 to .93, random intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from .80 to .98, indicating high degrees of shared measurement variance, and Cronbach's alpha indicated very good internal reliabilities (.91 to .99). Relative to the ZCG, the new AZCG appears to provide valid and reliable estimates of cardiac function at rest and during behavioral challenges in the lab.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)465-473
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001


  • Ambulatory monitoring
  • Cardiac output
  • Impedance cardiography
  • Reliability
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology


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