Aaron Jay Yang, Nitin B. Jain

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Careful examination of the neck begins with a thorough history and physical examination including strength and sensory testing as well as observation of gait to exclude neurologic involvement. Obtaining a history of aggravating factors is helpful in narrowing down the etiology of pain. For example, pain worse with prolonged neck flexion may signify a disc issue as opposed to pain worse with neck extension, which may suggest facet-mediated pain. Pain worse with lateral flexion causing ipsilateral neck pain may indicate neural compression due to narrowing of the ipsilateral neuroforamen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPain Medicine
Subtitle of host publicationAn Essential Review
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9783319431338
ISBN (Print)9783319431314
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Hoffman’s sign
  • Inspection
  • Neck distraction test
  • Palpation
  • Range of motion
  • Shoulder abduction test
  • Spurling’s test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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