Multiomics analysis of the NAD+–PARP1 axis reveals a role for site-specific ADP-ribosylation in splicing in embryonic stem cells

Aarin Jones, W. Lee Kraus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into a lineage-committed state is a dynamic process involving changes in cellular metabolism, epigenetic modifications, post-translational modifications, gene expression, and RNA processing. Here we integrated data from metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic assays to characterize how alterations in NAD+ metabolism during the differentiation of mouse ESCs lead to alteration of the PARP1-mediated ADP-ribosylated (ADPRylated) proteome and mRNA isoform specialization. Our metabolomic analyses indicate that mESCs use distinct NAD+ biosynthetic pathways in different cell states: the de novo pathway in the pluripotent state, and the salvage and Preiss–Handler pathways as differentiation progresses. We observed a dramatic induction of PARP1 catalytic activity driven by enhanced nuclear NAD+ biosynthesis during the early stages of mESC differentiation (e.g., within 12 h of LIF removal). PARP1-modified proteins in mESCs are enriched for biological processes related to stem cell maintenance, transcriptional regulation, and RNA processing. The PARP1 substrates include core spliceosome components, such as U2AF35 and U2AF65, whose splicing functions are modulated by PARP1-mediated site-specific ADP-ribosylation. Finally, we observed that splicing is dysregulated genome-wide in Parp1 knockout mESCs. Together, these results demonstrate a role for the NAD+–PARP1 axis in the maintenance of mESC state, specifically in the splicing program during differentiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)601-617
Number of pages17
JournalGenes and Development
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • ADP-ribosylation
  • NAD biosynthesis
  • PARP1
  • Preiss–Handler pathway
  • U2AF35
  • U2AF65
  • de novo pathway
  • embryonic stem cells (ESCs)
  • metabolomics
  • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
  • proteomics
  • salvage pathway
  • spliceosome
  • splicing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology


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