MultiNet PyGRAPPA: Multiple neural networks for reconstructing variable density GRAPPA (a 1H FID MRSI study)

Sahar Nassirpour, Paul Chang, Anke Henning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a powerful tool for mapping metabolite levels across the brain, however, it generally suffers from long scan times. This severely hinders its application in clinical settings. Additionally, the presence of nuisance signals (e.g. the subcutaneous lipid signals close to the skull region in brain metabolite mapping) makes it challenging to apply conventional acceleration techniques to shorten the scan times. The goal of this work is, therefore, to increase the overall applicability of high resolution metabolite mapping using 1H MRSI by introducing a novel GRAPPA acceleration acquisition/reconstruction technique. An improved reconstruction method (MultiNet) is introduced that uses machine learning, specifically neural networks, to reconstruct accelerated data. The method is further modified to use more neural networks with nonlinear hidden layers and is then combined with a variable density undersampling scheme (MultiNet PyGRAPPA) to enable higher in-plane acceleration factors of R = 5.6 and R = 7 for a non-lipid suppressed ultra-short TR and TE 1H FID MRSI sequence. The proposed method is evaluated for high resolution metabolite mapping of the human brain at 9.4T. The results show that the proposed method is superior to conventional GRAPPA: there is no significant residual lipid aliasing artifact in the images when the proposed MultiNet method is used. Furthermore, the MultiNet PyGRAPPA acquisition/reconstruction method with R = 5.6 results in reproducible high resolution metabolite maps (with an in-plane matrix size of 64 × 64) that can be acquired in 2.8 min on 9.4T. In conclusion, using multiple neural networks to predict the missing points in GRAPPA reconstruction results in a more reliable data recovery while keeping the noise levels under control. Combining this high fidelity reconstruction with variable density undersampling (MultiNet PyGRAPPA) enables higher in-plane acceleration factors even for non-lipid suppressed 1H FID MRSI, without introducing any structured aliasing artifact in the image.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)336-345
Number of pages10
StatePublished - Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Acceleration
  • MRSI
  • Metabolite mapping
  • Neural networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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