Microvessel density estimation in the human brain by means of dynamic contrast-enhanced echo-planar imaging

Jens H. Jensen, Hanzhang Lu, Matilde Inglese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Animal studies have shown that in vivo estimates of microvessel density in the brain may be obtained from an MRI-measurable index (Q) provided that a sufficiently high dose of an intravascular paramagnetic contrast agent is employed. Q is determined from the shifts in the transverse relaxation rates induced by the contrast agent, and a high dose is required for the validity of analytic expressions relating Q to the microvessel density. However, the steady-state imaging techniques used in these prior investigations are not appropriate for humans, as the required contrast agent dose is too large. Here results of a pilot study with three subjects are reported. The results suggest that reliable Q measurements can be performed in the human brain at 1.5 T by using an interleaved spin-echo (SE)/gradient-echo (GE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence and a bolus injection of a triple dose of Gd-DTPA. Lower- and upper-bound estimates for the microvessel density were derived from the Q-values, and were found to be in reasonable accord with previously cited values determined by histology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1145-1150
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2006


  • Contrast agent
  • Echo planar imaging
  • Human brain
  • MRI
  • Microvessel density
  • Relaxation rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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