Maternal urinary tract infections and selected cardiovascular malformations

Mario A. Cleves, Sadia Malik, Shengping Yang, Tonia C. Carter, Charlotte A. Hobbs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: In a population-based case-control study, we investigated the association between congenital cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) and maternal urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: Within the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 3,690 women who had singleton livebirths with nonsyndromic CVMs, and 4,760 women who had infants without birth defects were identified. Affected infants had: conotruncal, septal, anomalous pulmonary venous return, atrioventricular septal defects, or left- or right-sided obstructive heart defects. Mothers had a UTI if they reported having at least one infection during the first trimester. Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were computed to determine the association between CVMs and UTIs. Stratified analyses were conducted to investigate if sulfonamide use and/or fever modified the effect between CVMs and UTIs. RESULTS: Women who had offspring with either left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects or atrioventricular septal defects were more likely than controls to report a UTI. These associations remained among women who did not have fever or used sulfonamides. Maternal use of sulfonamides during the UTI did not appear to modify the relationship between CVM subtypes and maternal UTIs. CONCLUSIONS: In the National Birth Defects Prevention Study there was little evidence to support an association between CVMs and UTIs during the first trimester of pregnancy. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects and maternal UTI as well as between atrioventricular septal defects and maternal UTI were found. Our findings, while not conclusive, suggest that the possible association between maternal UTI and CVMs should be investigated further.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)464-473
Number of pages10
JournalBirth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2008


  • CVM
  • Fever
  • Infection
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Trimethoprim
  • UTI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology


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