Marker vaccine strategies and candidate CSFV marker vaccines

Xiao Nan Dong, Ying Hua Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

122 Scopus citations


Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is its etiological agent, and the only natural hosts are domestic pigs and wild boars. Although field CSFV strains vary in the virulence, they all result in serious losses in pig industry. Highly virulent field strains generally cause acute disease and high mortality; moderately virulent field strains raise subacute or chronic infections; postnatal infection by low virulent field strains produces subclinical infection and mortality in the new-born piglets. CSFV can cross the placental barrier, and this transplacental transmission usually results in mortality of fetuses and birth of congenitally infected pigs with a late-onset disease and death. Two main strategies to control CSF epidemic are systematic prophylactic vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (such as C-strain) and non-vaccination stamping-out policy. But neither of them is satisfying enough. Marker vaccine and companion serological diagnostic test is thought to be a promising strategy for future control and eradication of CSF. During the past 15 years, various candidate marker vaccines were constructed and evaluated in the animal experiments, including recombinant chimeric vaccines, recombinant deletion vaccines, DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines and peptide vaccines. Among them, two subunit vaccines entered the large scale marker vaccine trial of EU in 1999. Although they failed to fulfil all the demands of the Scientific Veterinary Committee, they successfully induced solid immunity against CSFV in the vaccinated pigs. It can be expected that new potent marker vaccines might be commercially available and used in systematic prophylactic vaccination campaign or emergency vaccination in the next 15 years. Here, we summarized current strategies and candidate CSFV marker vaccines. These strategies and methods are also helpful for the development of new-generation vaccines against other diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-230
Number of pages26
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 4 2007


  • Classical swine fever (CSF)
  • Diagnostic test
  • Marker vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • veterinary(all)


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