Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in children, and has been reported as the most common malignancy associated with thromboembolism in the pediatric age group. Treatment with Escherichia coli asparaginase, concomitant steroids, presence of central venous lines, and thrombophilic abnormalities are established risk factors for thromboembolism. The incidence varies with age, co-morbidities and chemotherapy regimens but the risk is highest during the induction and intensification phases. Treatment is necessary in majority of children to prevent serious sequelae. Mortality from thromboembolic events in any location is 2 to 4 % and the risk of recurrence is 7 to 10 %, further enhanced in the setting of malignancy. Randomized trials of venous thromboembolism (VTE) management in pediatric patients with ALL are lacking due to the low overall incidence, resulting in considerable variation in practice. The objective of this article is to review current knowledge on the treatment and prevention of thrombosis associated with pediatric ALL.
- Childhood leukemia
- Lymphoblastic leukemia
- Venous thromboembolism
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health