Magnetic resonance angiography for the nonpalpable testis: A cost and cancer risk analysis

S. E. Eggener, Yair Lotan, E. Y. Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose: For the unilateral nonpalpable testis standard management is open surgical or laparoscopic exploration. An ideal imaging technique would reliably identify testicular nubbins and safely allow children to forgo surgical exploration without compromising future health or fertility. Our goal was to perform a cost and risk analysis of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for unilateral nonpalpable cryptorchid testes. Materials and Methods: A search of the English medical literature revealed 3 studies addressing the usefulness of MRA for the nonpalpable testicle. We performed a meta-analysis and applied the results to a hypothetical set of patients using historical testicular localization data. Analysis was then performed using 3 different management protocols - MRA with removal of testicular nubbin tissue, MRA with observation of testicular nubbin tissue and diagnostic laparoscopy. A cancer risk and cost analysis was then performed. Results: MRA with observation of testicular nubbin tissue results in 29% of patients avoiding surgery without any increased cost of care. Among the 29% of boys with testicular nubbins left in situ and observed the highest estimated risk was 1 in 300 of cancer developing, and 1 in 5,300 of dying of cancer. Conclusions: A protocol using MRA with observation of inguinal nubbins results in nearly a third of boys avoiding surgical intervention at a similar cost to standard care without any significant increased risk of development of testis cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1745-1750
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2005


  • Costs and cost analysis
  • Cryptorchidism
  • Diagnostic imaging
  • Magnetic resonance angiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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