Lymphangioleiomyomatosis diagnosed by effusion cytology: A case report

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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease traditionally affecting women during their childbearing years. It can be sporadic or be associated with tuberous sclerosis syndrome. It is usually manifested in the lungs, kidneys, and/or lymphatic system. It consists of an overgrowth of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells, usually along the bronchovascular structures, resulting in the formation of cysts and the destruction of the lung parenchyma. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman with a history of pleural effusion and dyspnea. A computed tomographic scan revealed a mediastinal mass, chylothorax, and multiple pulmonary cysts. A diagnosis of LAM was rendered on a pleural fluid sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-289
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Cytology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015


  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • pleural effusion
  • spindle cells
  • tuberous sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


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