Longitudinal Health Care Cost in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Palliation

Jesse E. Hansen, Nicolas L. Madsen, Laurie Bishop, David L.S. Morales, Jeffrey B. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is resource intensive. Heath care systems are pressured to provide value to patients by improving outcomes while decreasing costs. A single-center retrospective cohort of infants with HLHS who underwent Norwood procedure or hybrid Norwood from 2004 to 2014 and survived to first outpatient follow up were studied. The primary outcome was total cost through 12 months with a sub-analysis of patients with 60 months of data. Costs were calculated using internal cost accounting system and reported by cost center. Of the 152 HLHS patients identified, 69 met inclusion criteria. Stage I hospitalization (n = 69), with a median length of stay 34 days [interquartile range (IQR) 24–58 days], resulted in a median cost of $203,817 (IQR $136,236–272,453). Of survivors at 12 months (n = 55), the median cost was $369,393 (IQR $216,289–594,038) generated in part by a median of 67 (40–126 days) hospitalized days during that year. A subgroup analysis of patients who reached 60 months of age (n = 29) demonstrated a median total cost of $391,812 (IQR $293,801–577,443) and a median of 74 lifetime hospitalized days (IQR 58–116 days). High cost centers included intensive care (41%), non-ICU hospital (17%), operative services (11%), catheterization lab (9%), and pharmacy (9%). Using multiple regression analysis, significant drivers of cost included reoperation, length of hospitalization, low birthweight, and use of ECMO. Costs related to HLHS management are driven both by care-related complications such as surgical re-intervention and patient factors such as low birth weight.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1210-1215
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Congenital heart disease
  • Cost
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Norwood procedure
  • Value

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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