Long-term outcomes after the excision of horseshoe urethral diverticulum

Shreeya Popat, Philippe E. Zimmern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to report our long-term experience with horseshoe urethral diverticulum (HUD) excised using the urethral preservation technique. Methods: Following IRB approval, charts of women who underwent HUD excision and had at least 6 months’ follow-up were reviewed. HUD was defined as a bilateral posterior diverticulum that extended laterally and anteriorly past 3 and 9 o’clock on the left and right sides respectively. HUD was diagnosed by pre-operative MRI. Success was defined as no evidence of residual diverticulum on post-operative imaging and the reported resolution of diverticulum symptoms. Results: Between 1998 and 2014, 12 out of 15 women who underwent HUD excision met the inclusion criteria. Mean follow-up was 81 (median: 52, range: 7–163) months. Presenting symptoms included urinary leakage (n = 8), dyspareunia (n = 6), dysuria (n = 6), frequency (n = 5), urgency (n = 5), and vaginal pain (n = 8). Two patients reported having all three symptoms of the historic triad: dysuria, dyspareunia, and post-void dribbling. Three patients had prior urological interventions, including excision of a unilateral diverticulum, a Spence procedure, and a Skene gland incision. Only 1 patient had a recurrent HUD confirmed by MRI 10 years later, which required reoperation. HUD symptoms resolved in the remaining 11 patients, with post-operative imaging showing no evidence of recurrent HUD, and no further therapy was needed. Of 4 women who reported stress urinary incontinence (SUI) pre-operatively, only 2 reported SUI symptoms post-operatively. There were no cases of post-operative urethro-vaginal fistula. Conclusion: At a mean follow-up of 6–7 years, excision of HUD with urethral preservation produced long-lasting resolution in the majority of patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)439-444
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Female urethral diverticulum
  • Horseshoe diverticulum
  • Long-term outcome
  • Surgical repair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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