Living the heart in three dimensions: Applications of 3D printing in CHD

Mari Nieves Velasco Forte, Tarique Hussain, Arno Roest, Gorka Gomez, Monique Jongbloed, John Simpson, Kuberan Pushparajah, Nick Byrne, Israel Valverde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Advances in biomedical engineering have led to three-dimensional (3D)-printed models being used for a broad range of different applications. Teaching medical personnel, communicating with patients and relatives, planning complex heart surgery, or designing new techniques for repair of CHD via cardiac catheterisation are now options available using patient-specific 3D-printed models. The management of CHD can be challenging owing to the wide spectrum of morphological conditions and the differences between patients. Direct visualisation and manipulation of the patients' individual anatomy has opened new horizons in personalised treatment, providing the possibility of performing the whole procedure in vitro beforehand, thus anticipating complications and possible outcomes. In this review, we discuss the workflow to implement 3D printing in clinical practice, the imaging modalities used for anatomical segmentation, the applications of this emerging technique in patients with structural heart disease, and its limitations and future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)733-743
Number of pages11
JournalCardiology in the Young
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019


  • 3D printing
  • CHD
  • cardiac magnetic resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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